Here are the references for the Facts page and a few extras for good measure. If you see important information missing here, please contact us to let us know!

Listed alphabetically by lead author’s last name.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M

N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


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Akan, G.E., & Grilo, C.M. (1995). Sociocultural influences on eating attitudes and behaviors, body image, and psychological functioning: A comparison of African-American, Asian-American, and Caucasian college women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 18 (2), 181-187.

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Andersen, A. & Holman, J.E. (1997). Males with eating disorders: Challenges for treatment and research. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 33 (3), 391-397.

Anderson, A.E., & DiDomenico, L. (1992). Diet vs. shape content of popular male and female magazines: A dose-response relationship to the incidence of eating disorders? International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11 (3), 283-287.

Attie, I., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1989). Development of eating problems in adolescent girls: A longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 25, 70-79.

Austin, E.W., Roberts, D.F., & Nass, C.I. (1990). Influences of family communication on children’s television-interpretation processes. Communication Research, 17 (4), 545-564.




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Becker, A.E., & Hamburg, P. (1996). Culture, the media, and eating disorders. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 4.

Beren, S.E., & Chrisler, J.C. (1990). Gender role, need for approval, childishness, and self-esteem: Markers of disordered eating? Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry and Behavior, 15, 183-198.

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Bergeron, S.M., & Senn, C.Y. (1998). Body image and sociocultural norms: A comparison of heterosexual and lesbian women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22, 385-401.

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Brownell, K.D. (1991). Dieting and the search for the perfect body: Where physiology and culture collide. Behavior Therapy, 22, 1-12.

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Cachelin, F.M., & Striegel-Moore, R. (2006). Help seeking and barriers to treatment in a community sample of Mexican American and European American women with eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39, 154-161.

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Cogan, J.C., Bhalla, S.K., Sefa-Dedeh, A., & Rothblum, E.D. (1996). A comparison study of United States and African students on perceptions of obesity and thinness. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 27 (1), 98-113.

Collins, J.K., Beumont, P.J., Touyz, S.W., Krass, J., Thompson, P., & Philips, T. (1987). Variability in body shape perception in anorexic, bulimic, obese and control subjects. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6, 633-638.

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Comstock, G. & Strasburger, V. (1990). Deceptive appearances: Television violence and aggressive behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 11, 31-44.

Cooke, K. (1996). Real gorgeous. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Cooper, P.J., Taylor, M.J., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C.G. (1987). The development and validation of the body shape questionnaire. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6, 485-494.

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Counts, C.R., & Adams, H. (1985). Body image in bulimic, dieting, and normal females. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 7 (3), 289-301.

Crago, M., Shisslak, C.M., & Estes, L.S. (1996). Eating disturbances among American minority groups: A review. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 19 (3), 239-248.

Crouch, A., & Degelman, D. (1998). Influence of female body images in printed advertising on self-ratings of physical attractiveness by adolescent girls.Perceptual & Motor Skills, 87 (2), 585-586.

Cusumano, D., & Thompson, J. K. (1997). Body image and body shape ideals in magazines: Exposure, awareness, and internalization. Sex Roles, 37 (9/10).



Davis, C., & Katzman, M. (1999). Perfection as acculturation: Psychological correlates of eating problems in Chinese male and female students living in the United States. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 25 (1), 65-70.

Dietz, T.L. (1998). An examination of violence and gender role portrayals in video games: Implications for gender socialization and aggressive behavior. Sex Roles, 38 (5-6), 425-442.

Dietz, W. (1998). Health consequences of obesity in youth childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics, 101, 518-525.

Dines, G., Jensen, R. & Russo, A. (Eds.). (1998). Pornography: The Production and Consumption of Inequality. New York: Routledge.

Dittrich, E.A. (1997). Sociocultural factors that influence body image satisfaction in women. (Doctoral Dissertation, California Institute of Integral Studies.) Dissertation Abstracts International.

Dolan, B., Birtchnell, S., & Lacey, J.H. (1987). Body image distortion in non-eating disordered women and men. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 31 (4), 513-520.

Dolan, B. (1991). Cross-cultural aspects of anorexia nervosa and bulimia: A review. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 10 (1), 67-81.

Drinkwater, B.L., Loucks, A., Sherman, R.T., Sundgot-Borgen, J., & Thompson, R.A. (2005). Position stand on the female athlete triad. IOC Medical Commission Working Group of Women in Sport.

Durkin, K., & Nugent, B. (1998). Kindergarten children’s gender-role expectations for television actors. Sex Roles, 38 (5/6), 387-402.



Eisenberg, M.E., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Story, M. (2003). Associations of weight-based teasing and emotional well-being among adolescents. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 157, 733-738.

Evans, C., & Dolan, B. (1993). Body shape questionnaire: Derivation of shortened “alternate forms”. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 13 (3), 315-321.



Fabian, L.J., & Thompson, J.K. (1989). Body image and eating disturbance in young females. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 8 (1), 63-74.

Fairburn, C., & Bohn, K. (2005). Eating disorders NOS (EDNOS): An example of the troublesome ‘Not Otherwise Specified’ (NOS) category in the DSM-IV.Behavior Research and Therapy, 43 (2006), 691-701.

Fairburn, C.G., & Garner, D.M. (1986). The diagnosis of bulimia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 10, 67-79.

Fairburn, C.G., & Garner, D.M. (1988). Diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: The importance of attitudes to weight and shape. In D.M. Garner & P.E. Garfinkel (Eds.), Diagnostic issues in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (36-55). New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Fernandez, F., Probst, M., Meerman, R., & Vandereycken, W. (1994). Body size estimation and body dissatisfaction on eating disorder patients and normal controls. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 16 (3), 307-310.

Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117-140.

Fisher, M., Golden, N.H., & Katzman, D.K. (1995). Eating disorders in adolescents: A background paper. Journal of Adolescent Health, 16, 420-437.

Flegal, K.M., Graubard, B.I., Williamson, D.F., & Gail, M.H. (2005). Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 1861-1867.

Forehand, M.R. (2001). What we see makes us who we are: Priming ethnic self-awareness and advertising response. Journal of Marketing Research, 38, 336-348.

Franko, D.L. & Herrera, I. (1997). Body image differences in Guatemalan-American and White college women. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 5 (2), 119-127.

Fraser, L. (1997). Losing it: America’s Obsession With Weight and the Industry That Feeds on it. New York: Penguin Books.

Fredrickson, B.L., & Harrison, K. (2005). Throwing like a girl: Self-objectification predicts adolescent girls’ motor performance. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 29, 79-101.

Fredrickson, B.L., & Roberts, T.A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women’s lived experience and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21 (2), 173-206.

Fredrickson, Roberts, et al. (1998). That swimsuit becomes you: Sex differences in self-objectification, eating and math performance. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 75 (1), (269-284).

French, S., et al. (1997). Ethnic differences in psychosocial and health behavior correlates of dieting, purging, and binge eating in a population-based sample of adolescent females. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 22, 315-322.

Frisch, M.J., Herzog, D.B., & Franko, D.L. (2006, July). Residential treatment for eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39 (5), 434-442.

Furnham, A., & Greaves, N. (1994). Gender and locus of control correlates of body image dissatisfaction. European Journal of Personality, 8, 183-200.



Gaesser, G.A. (2003). Is it necessary to be thin to be healthy? Harvard Health Policy Review, 4, 40-47.

Gapinski, K.D., Brownell, K.D., & LaFrance, M. (2003). Body objectification and “fat talk”: Effects on emotion, motivation, and cognitive performance. Sex Roles, 48, 377-388.

Gard, M.C.E., & Freeman, C.P. (1996). The dismantling of a myth: A review of eating disorders and socioeconomic status. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 20 (1), 1-12.

Garner, D.M. (1997, January/February). The 1997 body image survey results. Psychology Today, 31-44, 75-84.

Garner, D.M., Garfinkel, P.E., Schwartz, D., & Thompson, M. (1980). Cultural expectations of thinness in women. Psychological Reports, 47, 483-491.

Garner, D.M., Olmstead, M.P., & Polivy, J. (1983). Development and validation of a multidimensional eating disorder inventory for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 2 (2), 15-34.

Garner, D.M., Olmstead, M.P., Polivy, J., & Garfinkel P.E. (1984). Comparison between weight- preoccupied women and anorexia-nervosa. Psychosomatic Medicine, 46, (3), 255-266.

Geller, J., Johnston, C., Madsen, K., Goldner, E.M., Remick, R.A., & Birmingham, C.L. (1998). Shape- and weight-based self-esteem and the eating disorders.International Journal of Eating Disorders, 24 (3), 285-298.

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Goldman, E.L. (1996). Eating disorders on the rise in preteens, adolescents. Psychiatry News, 24 (2), 10.

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Grabe, S., Hyde, J.S., & Lindberg, S.M. (2007). Body objectification and depression in adolescents: The role of gender, shame, and rumination. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31, 164-175.

Gray, J.J., Ford, K., & Kelly, L.M. (1987). The prevalence of bulimia in a Black college population. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6 (6), 733-740.

Greenberg, B.S., Eastin, M., Hofschire, L., Lachlan, K., & Brownell, K.D. (2003). Portrayals of overweight and obese individuals on commercial television.American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1342-1348.

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Grilo, C.M., & Masheb, R.M. (2000). Onset of dieting versus binge eating in outpatients with binge eating disorder. International Journal of Obesity, 24, 404-409.

Grogan, S., Williams, Z., & Conner, M. (1996). The effects of viewing same-gender photographic models on body-esteem. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20 (4).

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Harris, S.M. (1994). Racial differences in predictors of college women’s body image attitudes. Women & Health, 21 (4), 89-103.

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Harrison, K., & Cantor, J. (1997). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Communication, 47 (1).

Harrison, K.M., and Fredrickson, B.L. (2003). Women’s sports media, self-objectification, and mental health in Black and White adolescent females. Journal of Communication, 53, 216-232.

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Hawkins, N., Richards, P.S., Granley, H., and Stein, D.M. (2004). The impact of exposure to the thin-ideal media images on women. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 12, 35-50.

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Heatherton, T.F., & Polivy, J. (1992). Chronic dieting and eating disorders: A spiral model. In J. H. Crowther, D.L. Tennenbaum, S.E. Hobfold, & M.A. Parris (Eds.), The Etiology of Bulimia Nervosa: The Individual and Familial Context. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.

Hebl, M.R., King, E.G., & Lin, J. (2004). The swimsuit becomes us all: Ethnicity, gender, and vulnerability to self-objectification. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1322-1331.

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Heinberg. L.J., & Thompson, J.K. (1992). Social comparison: Gender, target importance ratings, and relation to body image disturbance. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 7 (2), 335-344.

Heinberg, L.J., & Thompson, J.K. (1995). Body image and televises images of thinness and attractiveness: A controlled laboratory study. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Volume 14(4).

Heinberg, L.J., Thompson, J.K., & Stormer, S. (1995). Development and validation of the sociocultural attitudes towards appearance questionnaire. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 17 (1), 81-89.

Henderson-King, E., & Henderson-King, D. (1997). Media effects on women’s body esteem: Social and individual difference factors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27 (5).

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Kalodner, C.R. (1997). Media influences on male and female non-eating disordered college students: A significant issue. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 5 (1).

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Kilbourne, J. (1994). Still killing us softly: Advertising and the obsession with thinness. In P. Fallon, M.A. Katzman & S.C. Wooley (Eds.), Feminist Perspectives on Eating Disorders (395-418). New York: The Guilford Press.

Klesges, R.C., & Klesges, L.M. (1988). Cigarette smoking as a dieting strategy in a university population. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 7 (3), 413-419.

Koenig, L., & Wasserman, E.L. (1995). Body image and dieting failure in college men and women: Examining links between depression and eating problems. Sex Roles, 32 (3/4), 225-249.

Kog, E., & Vandereycken, W. (1989). Family interaction in eating disorder patients and normal controls. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 8 (1), 11-23

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Kunkel, D., Wilson, B., Donnerstein, E., Linz, D., Smith, S., Gray, T., et al. (1995). Measuring television violence: The importance of context. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 39 (2), 284-291.



Lamb, S. (2002). The Secret Lives of Girls: What Good Girls Really Do – Sex Play, Aggression, and Their Guilt. New York: Free Press.

Lamb, S. (2006). Sex, Therapy, and Kids: Addressing Their Concerns Through Talk and Play. New York: Norton.

Lamb, S., & Brown, L.M. (2006). Packaging Girlhood: Rescuing our Daughters from Marketers’ Schemes. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Le Grange, D., Stone, A.A., & Brownell, K. (1998). Eating disturbances in white and minority female dieters. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 24 (4), 395-403.

Le Grange, D., Telch, C.F., & Agras, W.S. (1997). Eating and general psychopathology in a sample of Caucasian and ethnic minority subjects. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 21 (3), 285-293.

Le Grange, D., Telch, C.F., & Tibbs, J. (1998). Eating attitudes and behaviors in 1,435 South African Caucasian and non-Caucasian college students. American Journal of Psychiatry,155 (2), 250-254.

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Lee, S., Leung, T., Lee, A.M., Yu, H., & Leung, C.M. (1996). Body dissatisfaction among Chinese undergraduates and its implications for eating disorders in Hong Kong. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 20 (1), 77-84.

Lester, R., & Petrie, T.A. (1995). Personality and physical correlates of bulimic symptomatology among Mexican American female college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42 (2), 199-203.

Lester, R., & Petrie, T.A. (1998). Physical, psychological, and societal correlates of bulimic symptomatology among African American college women. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45 (3), 315-321.

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